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Voiding dysfunction following removal of eroded synthetic mid urethral slings. Mansharamani M, Chilton BS. The reproductive importance of P-type ATPases. Mol Cell Endocrinol. Corrected and republished from: Mol Cell Endocrinol. Malinowski JM, Bolesta S. Rosiglitazone in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a critical review. Clin Ther. Erratum in: Clin Ther.

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Article published electronically ahead of the print version. Immortalization of yolk sac-derived precursor cells.

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Epub Jul 5. Medical microbiology. Louis: Mosby; Operative obstetrics. New York: McGraw-Hill; Adolescent pregnancy.

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Wieczorek RR, editor. Occupational therapy manpower: a plan for progress. AIDS practice manual: a legal and educational guide. San Francisco: The Network; Chromosome alterations in human solid tumors. The genetic basis of human cancer. Germ cell tumours V. New York: Springer; Christensen S, Oppacher F. An analysis of Koza's computational effort statistic for genetic programming. Genetic programming. Berlin: Springer; Health monitoring on vibration signatures. Final report. Report No. Contract No. Method for measuring the size distribution of airborne Rhinovirus.

Sponsored by the Department of Energy. Borkowski MM. Infant sleep and feeding: a telephone survey of Hispanic Americans [dissertation]. Flexible endoscopic grasping and cutting device and positioning tool assembly. United States patent US Tynan T. Medical improvements lower homicide rate: study sees drop in assault rate. The Washington Post.

Samples of Formatted References for Authors of Journal Articles

A:2 col. Chason KW, Sallustio S. Hospital preparedness for bioterrorism [videocassette]. Biodiversity hotspots [map]. Washington: Conservation International; Dorland's illustrated medical dictionary. Philadelphia: W. Saunders; Filamin; p. Signature of balancing selection in Arabidopsis. Forthcoming Alvarez R. Near optimal neural network estimator for spectral x-ray photon counting data with pileup. Biotinylation by antibody recognition- A novel method for proximity labeling. BioRxiv [Preprint]. Kording KP, Mensh B. In time by the time we get to Stage Four , metadata begins to take on new and even more important roles.

I am insisting on the inevitability of each stage because I want to make the point that the inevitable signs of Stage Four are already emerging. Stages Two and Three began to heighten the need for web marketing and getting a good PageRank in Google. This is because Google is a portal-buster. Search engine results point to the best presentation of information on the Internet, and for books, often the best source of information is the publisher.

You see this every day when you do a search for a news item. A comprehensive description of a book is the equivalent of a well-crafted story in the Times. Direct marketing is inevitable—and it is disruptive. In Stages One to Three, we had middlemen, but with Stage Four, we have disintermediated the middleman because search engines make it possible to do so. The reason we do this is because of the promise of higher margins. By the time we get to Stage Four, most of the elements of Stage One, bricks-and-mortar bookselling, have disappeared.

Print has given way to electronics, physical stores have been replaced by online venues, and channel sales have been replaced by direct marketing. Some university presses are already experimenting with Stage Four bookselling, and many have been surprised by the result. The answer lies in the evidence: In fact, many people do not go to Amazon, even when the price is lower there. Does this mean that a press could enter Stage Four and walk away from Stage Three? But Stage Four is something different; it is a new marketing opportunity.

They get to control their marketing messages, they get to test different offers, and they establish a direct relationship with the customer. That direct relationship tips us into some complicated policy areas.

The Oligopoly of Academic Publishers in the Digital Era

Direct marketers, whether university presses or late-night television household appliance vendors, share a common strategy, and that is to collect as much information about customers as possible. This is not the mechanical, knee-jerk reaction of a Big Brother, but the deliberate tactic of marketers who know from experience that the more information they possess about customers, the more things they can sell.

But what about privacy? But as Stage Four book publishers, we might inquire, How many people are in your household, and what is the outstanding balance on your mortgage? There is no resolution that I am aware of to the tension between privacy advocates basically all of us in our consumer aspect and marketers. The press world is going to have to come up with a standard for marketing practices and data retention. Which begs another question: What if commercial publishers are more lax about their privacy policies?

Will university presses prove to be uncompetitive as Stage Four book publishing takes hold? Stage Four sounds so good for publishers that you would think that they would stop there. The inevitable pressures of technology and the marketplace, however, do not permit this. Inexorably, participants in Stage Four will come to see that they have a very big cost in customer acquisition and they will look for ways to drive that cost down. Enter Stage Five. Direct marketers know that one of the single biggest expenses they have is getting someone to buy from them in the first place.

Advocacy WG

For this reason, direct marketers are always looking for ways to sell additional things to customers that they already have. I want to make an important distinction here between libraries and publishers. Libraries are interested in the life cycle of a publication, which is why they properly put so much emphasis on preservation. Publishers, however, are interested in the life cycle of the customer.

The challenge is how to extract sale after sale from the same person. This is true whether you are an academic book publisher or the head of marketing at Apple. Stage Five is thus the reemergence of the subscription business. This is a radical change. In all the stages up to now, publishers were still selling discrete objects, otherwise known as books.

Print vs. Digital: The Future of Coexistence (Journal of Library Administration)

But once they get their direct-marketing engines running, they will try to convert one-time sales into ongoing sales. There are countless ways to do this and new ideas spring up every day. Let me mention a couple things that have caught my attention recently in this regard. Not long ago, Amazon announced that if you own a Kindle book that needs a correction or an update, Amazon will make the changes silently over the Internet.

Some people found this to be disturbing, as it gets into the hard realm of privacy policy. But it also suggests that Amazon is exploring a subscription model for books. Instead of purchasing or renting a book from Amazon, you will subscribe to it, and for that subscription, you get a number of enhancements. It is but a short leap for Amazon to begin to charge for those updates. Also of interest is a recent acquisition by Apple of an online music service that sells subscriptions to popular music.

This comes on the heels of the success of a number of online subscription services for music, including the very popular Pandora. The service is supported by advertising in effect, it is like listening to a personalized radio station , but one wonders if a fee-based premium service is in the offing. This might also remind you of NetFlix, which is now streaming movies directly to your computer or digital television on a subscription basis. Meanwhile, the music business is beginning to look more like the journals business. It seems probable that all scholarly publishers will become web marketers, direct marketers, and managers of a subscription service in the coming years.

If you are thinking about sustainability, the time to begin working on these things is now. Look forward, not back; think innovation, not preservation. It will be apparent to everyone that a subscription model lends itself to aggregations that are organized by topic. Some of the current projects in the university press world are thus harbingers of Stage Five book publishing, though they are mostly aimed at the institutional market, not to individuals.

If you have a collection of titles in, say, political science, you can find all the political scientists and try to attract them to your service. One problem with this model, however, is that only a handful of presses have enough titles in any one category to attract enough subscribers. This naturally leads to having multiple presses combine their titles in order to create a large aggregation. Thus, the marketing of aggregations is something of a halfhearted strategy toward full Stage Five book publishing.

I know of no scenario wherein the market share for materials purchases for libraries is greater in five years than it is for today. While the deacidification process stabilizes paper, it does not restore lost physical properties. Paper strengthening includes techniques or procedures that attempt to restore damaged or weak paper to a usable state, or to a condition of increased strength relative to its pre-treatment state.

Cellulose acetate lamination has been in use in the United States since the mids. With this process, paper is sandwiched between two thin sheets of cellulose acetate film and heated under pressure in a hydraulic press. Since the process lends itself to mechanization, it offers high output at a limited cost. When used indiscriminately, however, the lamination treatment could prove harmful to certain types of documents.

In fact, one recent article described the lamination process as dangerous and difficult to reverse although heretofore it has been highly regarded as a preservation technique. In this process, single sheets of paper are enclosed between two sheets of mylar or other polyester film, which are then sealed around the edges. Because it is stable, easily reversed, and introduces no harmful products, the polyester film encapsulation process is preferred over cellulose acetate lamination.

Both encapsulation and lamination have limited application to treating books since sheets of paper have to be processed individually. Research has been underway for several years to develop a strengthening method for treating entire books or blocks of text. One of these is the graft copolymerization process which is being developed by the British Library.

Digital Information and Knowledge Management

Simply put, this technique essentially reverses the breakdown of cellulose fibers in brittle paper by joining the shortened fibers with polymeric molecules which results in increased paper strength. The information found in materials that are heavily used, weak, or damaged is subject to being lost forever unless measures are taken to create a surrogate copy.

One widely used approach to this aspect of preservation is to produce duplicates in another, more stable format. Two processes - microfilming and digitization - will be briefly presented here. Microfilming has been in existence as a preservation technique since the 's and over the past twenty years it has been the medium of choice for high-volume preservation efforts and funding. The popularity of microfilming is attributable to several factors including its proven track record of quality reproduction, its existence as a stable medium properly produced and stored silver halide microfilm has a life expectancy of years , and its adherence to universally accepted standards.

When originals are not to be retained after microfilming, a significant gain in storage space can be realized. For all of its many benefits, microfilm has one daunting drawback in that it is often perceived as a medium of storage rather than of access. Within a preservation context, the issue is becoming more than just insuring continued availability through longevity, such as exists with preservation microfilming, but to also preserve in a format that permits timely and convenient access to information, which is one of the attractive features of digital imaging or digitization.

Digitization is an emerging technology which offers a powerful means for managing, storing, and retrieving information. Within the past decade, this technology has been advanced by several converging developments including the proliferation of personal computing, increased accessibility of high-speed computer networks such as the Internet, and the enhanced availability of quality scanning systems.

Given the vast potential of digitization, interest in this technology as having preservation applications has intensified in recent years. In addition to its many access advantages, digitization offers ease of manipulation and enhancement of images, preview capability, the ability to reproduce an image over and over without degradation, and flexibility in output. These same digital images could also be used to produce a print copy or transmitted over computer networks to researchers at distant locations.

On the other hand, there are significant disadvantages with digitization technology which must be acknowledged. Perhaps the most troubling issue relating to digitization as a preservation method is that it is an evolving technology. Another concern is the lack of commonly accepted protocols and standards for the use of digital technology in a preservation context. Functional indexing of digitally converted library materials presents an access and preservation concern.

Unless optical character recognition OCR programs have been used in the conversion process, the scanned images that exist on computer files are devoid of the indexing and bibliographic tools that permit convenient use. To preserve the content of library materials that are unstable or subject to deterioration, photocopying with permanent and durable paper is an often-used option. In order for a book to be reproduced in this manner, it must fall outside the current copyright restrictions.

Preservation photocopying must be used judiciously since the copying process can cause damage to fragile items; therefore, it is not an appropriate option for books with artifactual value. In addition to photocopying onto alkaline paper, another requirement for producing a preservation photocopy is that the equipment used must meet United States government standards for image permanence in terms of the stability and strength of the ink bonding to the paper.

One proactive solution to the problem of acid deterioration of books is to use acid-free or alkaline paper. Alkaline paper is more stable and, therefore, has a much longer life than acid paper. Alkaline paper is brighter, more opaque, and smoother than acid paper and this provides improved print quality and color reproduction.

Two factors which essentially inhibit manufacturers from converting to alkaline paper production are the substantial retrofitting costs involved and the fact that book paper accounts for only a small portion of the total sales of paper makers. A well-established organization at each of these three levels will be briefly examined to present a sample of the resources available to assist with preservation concerns. The North Carolina Preservation Consortium is a not-for-profit membership organization with a mission of educating its members and others about the needs and methods of information preservation.

The Consortium was established in with a grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities. Present financial support comes from membership fees and fees for services with partial employee support being provided by the School of Library and Information Sciences at North Carolina Central University.