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Fought largely by France and Spain but involving much of Europe, they resulted in the Spanish Habsburgs dominating Italy and shifted power from Italy to northwestern Europe.

He took Naples, but an alliance between…. Its settlement ended the Spanish claim to a monopoly of trade and settlement on the western coast of North America and made possible the eventual expansion of the Canadian provinces to the Pacific.

Culture Shocks in Andalusia, Spain - Australian in Spain

A skilled tactician and a capable organizer, he led a liberation movement that made him the hero of the Maghrib northwest Africa. It was fought primarily in the Rif, a mountainous region of northern Morocco. The war was the last and perhaps the most significant of many confrontations over the centuries between the Rif—the. Though Spain was willing to make large concessions to avoid war, it adamantly resisted what had become the minimum public and official U.

Hence Congress in mid-April authorized McKinley to use the armed forces to expel…. A parallel struggle involved the rivalry of France with the Habsburgs of the empire and with the Habsburgs of Spain, who had been attempting to construct a cordon of anti-French alliances. Philip of Spain was also involved in war: in —15 and —17, Spanish forces in Lombardy fought the troops of the duke of Savoy over the succession to the childless duke of Mantua.

Spain could therefore aid neither Matthias nor Ferdinand. It was precipitated by an incident that took place in when Captain Robert Jenkins appeared before a committee of the House of Commons and exhibited what he…. The sovereigns probably argued that the cost of equipping the expedition would not be very great; the loss, if it failed, could be borne; the gain, should it succeed, was incalculable—indeed, it might divert to Spain all the wealth of Asia. The occasion for the decolonization was provided by the Napoleonic Wars. The French occupation of the Iberian Peninsula in , combined with the ensuing years of intense warfare until on that peninsula between the British and French and….

The first Spanish conquistadors to gaze on the city were awed by its size and orderliness, and they compared its grandeur to that of European centres such as Sevilla Seville and Salamanca in Spain and especially Venice in Italy, with its comparably intricate network of navigation canals,…. After the northern Netherlands had revolted against Spanish rule, however, and Philip II of Spain who since had been king of Portugal also had sought to punish the Dutch merchants by excluding them from the Iberian ports, they were stimulated to organize oceanic….

Spain concluded in that the best way to preserve its interests in equatorial Africa was to grant independence to its people without preparing them for it. The result was chaos.

Sardinia as a Crossroads in the Mediterranean: An Introduction

The Spanish colonized the Southeast, the Southwest, and California. Their goal was to create a local peasant class; indigenous…. Similar hopes inspired Spanish exploitation of the discovery by Christopher Columbus of the Caribbean outposts of the American continent in The Treaties of Tordesillas and Saragossa in and defined the limits of westward Spanish exploration and the eastern ventures of Portugal. The two states acting…. First in the Caribbean and then in spectacular conquests of New Spain and Peru, they captured the imagination, and the envy, of the European world.

In Fray Marcos de Niza, a Franciscan priest,…. The Spanish conquest, beginning in , brought seekers of gold and Indian labour, followed by Dominican and Jesuit friars in search of converts. The colonial agrarian economy was based on the systematic exploitation of the Aymara in agriculture, in the mines, as household servants, and on…. The Spanish penetrated the area in the 16th and 17th centuries and tried to convert the Maya to Christianity, but with little success.

The Maya population had begun to decline long before the Spaniards arrived, and the remaining Maya lived in politically decentralized societies. Although the…. Accompanied by soldiers and soon followed by ranchers and other colonial developers, these missionaries upon their arrival initiated a long period of….

March 30, 12222

A year later Christopher Columbus, on his fourth voyage, sailed along the Caribbean coast from the Bay of Honduras to Panama, accumulating much information and a little…. It was colonized by Spain, and the culture that evolved was largely Spanish; the influence of the original Indian inhabitants is negligible. The people became largely mestizo, a blend of Spanish and Indian bloodlines. The society developed with a small elite controlling most of the land, the wealth, and…. Fearing attacks by the United States, they strengthened the Spanish frontier in the s with huge land grants reaching as far north as the Arkansas River.

Pleasant Days in Spain.

On these grants were established the first…. Other more promising regions forced Spain to neglect the area, however, and the first significant settlement in what is now Costa Rica did not take place until much later. In the Spanish crown established the village of Cartago in the Valle Central, or Meseta Central, as the first permanent…. Christopher Columbus sighted the northern coast of Cuba on October 27, , and made landfall there the following day.

With land on both sides of the harbour, the port was easily defended. The early colonists erected a number of fortifications in the area that withstood most invaders. In colonial times Havana was the first landfall for Spanish fleets coming to the New…. Atahuallpa was executed the next year as the Spanish conquest spread. In many parts of what is now Ecuador, Inca rule was less than 50 years old, and many of the pre-Inca chiefdoms still held….

The Spanish conquest and colonization of El Salvador began in with the arrival of an expedition from Guatemala led by Pedro de Alvarado. These cessions were designed to give Spain its own source of slaves in Africa for transport to Spanish America, where, in exchange, the…. The British outpost on West Falkland was restored in after threat of war, but then the British withdrew from the island in for reasons of economy, without renouncing their claim to the Falklands. In France established Fort Caroline near the mouth of the St. Johns River, about 35 miles 55 km north.

About , Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto, on a quest for silver and gold, led the first European expedition into the area that is now Georgia. There he encountered the highly organized agriculturalists of Mississippian culture. Directly or indirectly, the Spanish expedition was….

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Spain officially claimed the island in but did not attempt to conquer it until the latter part of the 17th century. After an uprising in and 25 years of intermittent warfare, the Spanish subdued the population with considerable bloodshed. Diseases introduced by the…. Under the Spanish, a capital was reestablished at the nearby location of present-day Antigua Guatemala. The capital achieved a certain magnificence, and the other major towns acquired some aspects of Spanish culture, but the outlying areas were only lightly affected.

When the capital was razed by a…. The earliest European explorers were Spaniards under Amerigo Vespucci in the early s. It was the Dutch who finally began European settlement, establishing trading posts upriver in about By the midth century the Dutch had…. When the Spanish arrived to colonize Honduras, the land was occupied by a variety of indigenous peoples, the most advanced of whom were the Maya.

Gold stimulated Spanish conquest of the area early in the 16th century, and the Honduran gold-mining town of…. Meanwhile, the Spaniards had landed at Tumbes on the northern coast of Peru early in and were seeking an interview with Atahuallpa so that they could kidnap him. It is clear that they understood the nature of the Inca civil war and….

Because of the Spanish failure to quell a Dutch rising in the Netherlands, and after the English defeated the Spanish Armada in , the route to the East was opened to both English…. Even since independence, many of the various nations have experienced similar trends, and they have some awareness of a….

In the half century that followed, Lisbon lived relatively well as a port for the…. The Spanish protectorate over northern Morocco extended from Larache El-Araish on the Atlantic to 30 miles 48 km beyond Melilla already a Spanish possession on the Mediterranean. Spain also received a strip of desert land in…. During the first period of colonization, Spanish Jesuits set up missions and reservations in northwestern Middle America; these usually included housing for clergy, indigenous peoples, and….

The first country to send…. However, the Spaniards either misread or ignored the intentions of their hosts and often forced native commoners, who customarily provided temporary labour to visitors as a courtesy gesture, into slavery. In the Southwest the Spanish continued to dominate the indigenous nations. They maintained their cultural heritage through a combination of….

The journey proved fruitless, however, and they soon returned to New Spain Mexico. Colonial policies strongly affected the evolving human patterns of North America. It often is stated that Spanish interests centred around God and gold—the Christianizing of the Indians and quick wealth from precious metals—but this is an overstatement. The Spanish also were deeply involved…. No colonies were started at that time, however, because the Spanish were more interested in conquests in the Americas, the Philippines, and the Moluccas.

The British adventurer Thomas Cavendish was the next to…. Coronado claimed the area for Spain, but it became little more than a highway for wide-ranging Spanish explorers. France and Spain struggled for control until , leaving only the natives…. If the dimensions of Atlantis did originate on the pillars in the temple at Sais , the unit of measurement used was probably Egyptian or Atlantean and so their exact value must be open to question. The values given by Plato relating to Atlantis have long been ammunition for sceptics. The late Ulf Richter has recently proposed a simple solution to this problem b , namely that the unit of measurement originally recorded was the Egyptian Khet.

This was equivalent to The acceptance of this rational explanation removes one of the great objections to veracity of the Atlantis narrative. S pain has been a favoured as a probable location of Atlantis by a sizeable number of investigators, principally Spanish and other Europeans. One commentator has suggested that the origin of the name of Spain itself was derived from the Semitic language of the Phoenicians who arrived in Spain around BC.

The date appears to be based on tradition rather than hard evidence. Archaeology puts the date closer to BC. The oldest Phoenician remains, found in the vicinity of Malaga, were discovered during the recent building of a second runway. Occupation of the site is dated at around BC.

So now it seems that if something previously unknown is found, it must come from Atlantis! That something has been found is not doubted, but it is more likely to have been Phoenician who extensively exploited the rich mineral deposits in the region. Another website offers a more extensive report from Merlin Burrows g as well as a review of other failed Atlantis claims. There is little doubt that a number of interesting sites over the mile stretch have been located, but they do not include Atlantis. Expect a flurry of media responses c for a while as they await the next wild claim. Meanwhile Merlin Burrows have had their publicity.

In fact nothing remotely Atlantean was found. For my part, I prefer to follow Plato and point to the only territory named by him as Atlantean, namely Southern Italy, N. Africa and some of the many islands in the region.

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