UK, April 7. UK, June UK, October Isn't It?
UK, December UK, November UK, October 3. UK, December 5. The Cuban Embargo" No. UK, January 2. UK, January 9. UK, January Gun Control" No. UK, February 6. UK, March International Monetary Fund" No. UK, April 3. UK, May 8. UK, January 1. UK, January 8. UK, February 5. UK, April 1. UK, April 8. UK, May 6. UK, July 1. UK, July 8. UK, July House of Representatives" No.
UK, August 5. UK, August Aid to Colombia" No. UK, September National Missile Defense" No. UK, The Regulation of Cyberspace" No. UK, June 1. McNamara" No. The Case of Henry Kissinger" No. Welfare Reform" No. Teaching the Classics" No. UK, December 7. Evolution and Spirituality" No. Is Hated" No. Supports Israel" No.
UK, November 7. Reforming the Death Penalty" No. Is America Becoming an Empire? Restoring Confidence in Corporate America" No. George Orwell" No. Democracy versus the Rule of Law" No. The Constitution of the European Union" No. A Conversation with Paul Johnson" No. Drug Legalization" No. UK, September 8. Bush" No. Vladimir Putin and Russian Democracy" No. UK, January 6. The Utility of War" No. Thomas Jefferson and Slavery" No.
The Future of Japan" No. UK, March 3. UK, May 3. UK, June 8. The Future of Transatlantic Alliance" No. UK, November 3. Reforming the United Nations" No. UK, February 1. Should the Patriot Act Be Renewed? Gay Marriage in the Courts" No. Economy with Peter Thiel" No.
Hoover Institution Archives Galvez Mall. Title: Uncommon Knowledge video tapes. Contributing Institution: Hoover Institution Archives. Language of Material: English. Physical Description: manuscript boxes, 3 card file boxes, 54 videotape reels, digital files Abstract: Relates to various aspects of American foreign and domestic policy. Physical Location: Hoover Institution Archives. The Hoover Institution Archives only allows access to copies of audiovisual items. To listen to sound recordings or to view videos or films during your visit, please contact the Archives at least two working days before your arrival.
We will then advise you of the accessibility of the material you wish to see or hear. Please note that not all audiovisual material is immediately accessible. Acquired between and For the broadcast years, most of the videotapes and audio tapes were acquired directly from the Uncommon Knowledge production staff in a series of increments.
Some tapes were obtained from storage at the Hoover Press. For the webcast years, video programs are received directly from Stanford Video. Transcripts were captured from various websites by Hoover Archives staff. Uncommon Knowledge is still being broadcast; video will continue to be deposited at the Hoover Institution Archives. Materials may have been added to the collection since this finding aid was prepared. Materials have been added to the collection if the number of boxes listed in the online catalog is larger than the number of boxes listed in this finding aid. Uncommon Knowledge is a public policy talk show produced by the Hoover Institution.
It features Hoover research fellow Peter M. Robinson discussing national and international economic, political, and social issues with political leaders, distinguished scholars, leading journalists, and others. William F. Buckley Jr. Uncommon Knowledge was broadcast as a weekly half-hour television program from to June The unedited webcasts are typically between 30 and 40 minutes in duration. During the broadcast years, each program in the season was assigned a sequential number, and with each new season, the numbering started with the next even hundred:.
After the program shifted to webcasting, the PBS program numbering was discontinued and Hoover Archives staff assigned each program a sequential number:. Host Peter M. Robinson writes about business and politics, and edits the Hoover Institution's quarterly journal, the Hoover Digest.
In , he graduated summa cum laude from Dartmouth College, where he majored in English. He went on to study politics, philosophy, and economics at Oxford University, graduating in Robinson spent six years in the White House, serving from to as chief speechwriter to Vice President George H. Bush and from to as special assistant and speechwriter to President Ronald Reagan. He graduated with an MBA in He spent a second year in Washington, D.
In , Robinson joined the Hoover Institution. The collection includes videorecordings, audio recordings, and transcripts of programs. Most recordings represent edited programs, though a few of the webcasts are unedited. Sound recording formats are limited to audio CD. Full descriptions of all programs are taken verbatim from the Uncommon Knowledge website. Dates listed for each program are the date the program was taped. Where the Uncommon Knowledge web site information differs from the label on a video tape, the label information has been used.
The two Collections of Programs series consist of programs grouped around particular themes by the Uncommon Knowledge staff. The one-inch videotapes usually contain more than one program per reel. For unidentified programs, the information in the container list is taken from the labels on the videotapes.
They may contain clips from multiple programs. The Program Transcripts series is not quite complete. Because Uncommon Knowledge is an ongoing program, additional material continues to be added to the collection. Program transcripts, 24 February - 1 December Scope and Contents note Transcripts of Uncommon Knowledge programs, which typically also include the program title, date taped, brief description that sets up the program, name and description of guests.
Transcripts for are not available, and a few transcripts are missing from other seasons. Dates used are the date the program was taped. Research Materials for Individual Programs. Boxes: , , on shelf. Series 1, Series , UK, April 12 Scope and Contents note John Shoven, professor of economics and dean of the School of Humanities and Science, Stanford University, and David Wise, fellow, Hoover Institution, discuss demographics, social security, health care, and retirement savings.
UK, May 10 Scope and Contents note Kenneth Arrow, professor of economics, Stanford University, and Nobel laureate and Kenneth Judd, fellow, Hoover Institution, discuss the sources of the persistent and increasing inequality of American incomes. Desmond, Godwin, and Postrel debate the constitutionality of the law, and more broadly, what role the federal government should have in regulating the web.
Is prison incarceration a cost-effective strategy for fighting crime? Does a higher incarceration rate deter crime? Should American soldiers be willing to defend Poland? Does a crumbling Russia pose a threat to the United States? Series , Winter. UK, October 23 Scope and Contents note William Perry, former secretary of defense and senior fellow, Hoover Institution, and George Shultz, former secretary of state and distinguished fellow, Hoover Institution, discuss the threats we face as a nation and what should be done about them.
UK, October 23 Scope and Contents note William Perry, former secretary of defense and senior fellow, Hoover Institution, and George Shultz, former secretary of state and distinguished fellow, Hoover Institution, continue their discussion on the threats and challenges facing the United States in a post-cold war world.
UK, October 21 Scope and Contents note David Friedman, professor of law, University of Santa Clara, and Edwin Meese III, former United States attorney general and distinguished visiting fellow, Hoover Institution, discuss how we balance the rights of our citizens with the very real needs of national security. UK, October 31 Scope and Contents note Kellyanne Fitzpatrick, founder and president, the Polling Company, and David Serrano-Sewell, special assistant to the mayor of San Francisco, discuss generation-X, the 50 million Americans born between and and their attitudes toward government and politics.
Is China on its way to becoming "the" super power? Should the United States be worried? Should we respond? Are the U. Are public health advocates asking the federal government to overstep its bounds, or is it time for a national tobacco policy? Sofaer, the George P. Shultz senior fellow, Hoover Institution; Jonathan B. Is it possible that we are over-hyping the threat, scaring the American public, and allowing the Federal Bureau of Investigation to further extend their already-broad powers into our personal lives? Re-aired as UK UK, October 17 Scope and Contents note Coit Blacker, senior fellow, Institute for International Studies, Stanford University; Gloria Duffy, chief executive officer, Commonwealth Club, California; and Charles Hill, senior research fellow, Hoover Institution, put the Clinton record to the test--how has the administration fared on the host of threats and challenges facing the U.
Or is the real issue over whether there should be a minimum wage at all? Knight fellowship program, and director of the graduate program in journalism, Stanford University, and Robert Zelnick, media fellow, Hoover Institution, ask whether the press today is driven by the "public's right to know" or pressure to beat the competition. Hobson, attorney, Criminal Justice Legal Foundation; and Pamela Karlan, professor of law, Stanford University, take a critical look at justice in America and tell how to fix a system badly in need of repair.
Hobson, attorney, Criminal Justice Legal Foundation; and Pamela Karlan, professor of law, Stanford University, give a lively presentation of different approaches to stopping crime. Fed up with crime, the public has demanded "get tough" laws, locking up more criminals, handing out longer sentences and calling for more executions. Is it working? Is our strategic weapons policy in line with Ronald Reagan's proclamation that "a nuclear war cannot be won and must never be fought? The Clinton administration argues that isolating Castro is the best way to make him democratize, adopt market reforms, and compensate Americans for property seized during the revolution.
Is it? Buckley, Jr. What happened in and why? From a bloody war in Vietnam to a bloody struggle for equality in our nation's streets, what is the legacy of '68? In sex, drugs, and rock and roll fed a youthful counterculture rebelling against the strait-laced social mores of their parents.
But another rebellion was born that year, a counter-counterculture, a vigorous conservative movement. Friedman professor, department of economics, Stanford University; and David R. Henderson, research fellow, Hoover Institution and professor, department of economics, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California, discuss the future of social security. What is wrong, if anything, with the social security system today?
What plans exist to fix it? How would the deployment of a missile defense system affect the ABM treaty that the U. Shultz fellow, Hoover Institution, discuss whether an independent Palestinian state is the inevitable result of the peace process.
What is the history of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict and the on-going peace process? Do the agreements in Oslo and in Wye represent breakthroughs, or are the prospects as far away as ever? Does the Second Amendment really give individuals the right to bear arms? Is it possible that crime actually goes down when citizens are allowed to carry concealed handguns? UK, February 13 Scope and Contents note Timothy Draper, managing director, Draper Fisher Jurveston; Terry Moe, senior fellow, Hoover Institution and professor, department of political science, Stanford University; and Justo Robles, director, Institute for Teaching, California Teachers Association, discuss these and other possible solutions including charter schools within the public school system and vouchers that can be used at public and private schools.
Everyone wants to improve the performance of our public schools. But what is the best way to do it? Is more money the answer or do we need to set national standards that schools must meet? UK, February 20 Scope and Contents note Gretchen Daily, research scientist, Center for Conservation Biology, Stanford University; Tom McMahon, executive director, Californians for Population Stabilization; and Stephen Moore, visiting scholar, Hoover Institution and director of fiscal policy studies, Cato Institute, discuss whether our resources are being depleted beyond sustainable limits, or will human ingenuity continue to support an expanding population.
Two thousand years ago, the Earth had about million people. Today it has six billion people. Is six billion too many for Planet Earth? Wave after wave of immigrant groups has followed a path of increasing economic success and integration into the American mainstream. African-Americans have not. Is integration the means to equality or actually the result? Should environmental issues be given the same weight in American foreign policy as economic and national security concerns?
What are the connections between the global economy and the global environment?
The International Monetary Fund IMF has hundreds of billions of dollars at its disposal and is a major player in the economies of nations around the world. But just what does it do? Will the recent presidential crisis have a long-term impact on the nation and its government or just on the legacy of one man? Which party will emerge victorious in the elections of the year ? Clayton senior fellow, Hoover Institution, ask what are NATO's new mission, and what justifies America's continued involvement in them? In the past decade we have witnessed the end of the cold war and the demise of the Soviet Union.
Should NATO be the next to go? The independent counsel statute was passed by Congress as a response to Watergate. And it has been the subject of controversy and criticism ever since. This year the statute is up for renewal. UK, May 15 Scope and Contents note Milton Friedman, senior research fellow, Hoover Institution and Nobel laureate in economics, discusses how he balances the libertarian's desire for a small, less intrusive government with environmental, public safety, food and drug administration, and other issues.
What are the elements of the libertarian movement and how does one of its most illustrious proponents, Milton Friedman, apply its tenets to issues facing the United States today? UK, May 22 Scope and Contents note Milton Friedman, senior research fellow, Hoover Institution and Nobel laureate in economics, grades the achievements of the Clinton administration and evaluates the programs the president proposed in his State of the Union address.
Mike Quilan, vice chairman of the board, Prison Realty Trust; and Eric Schlosser, correspondent, Atlantic Monthly, discuss the politics of the privatization of America's prisons. The United States now has approximately 1. Ninety thousand about 5 percent are held in private prisons. Is 5 percent too many or too few? Are hate crimes more serious than other crimes requiring greater penalties, or are laws against them an unnecessary addition to the criminal code? Does hate crime legislation infringe on freedom of speech?
Should Congress extend hate crime statutes to cover more groups or should the federal government leave the issue up to the states? Cities and towns across the nation are struggling with problems of future growth and the legacies of past development. Is it time to wake up from the American dream? Has the post World War II model of suburban development let us down?
What does "smart growth" mean? Should the federal government mandate changes on a national level or only offer guidance to local governments? How has the status of women in America improved over the past forty years of feminism? As past problems have been solved, have new ones been created?
What are the most important issues for the women's movement today? For that matter, just how much do women agree on what it even means to be a feminist? Genetically modified crops and foods are already big business. But are they safe? Have the giant agribusiness companies that have rushed them into the fields and into our stores overlooked potential dangers posed by genetically engineered crops?
Even if scientists do believe these crops are safe, how do they convince a skeptical public? UK, February 5 Scope and Contents note Noted author Tom Wolfe, author and journalist, discusses the latest findings in the field of neuroscience, which Wolfe believes is on the threshold of a unified theory that will have an impact as powerful as that of Darwinism a hundred years ago.
Over the past several decades, neuroscientists have been putting together a model of the human brain that suggests that a great deal of our behavior and motivations are hardwired in our brains. In exploring the question of what human nature is, Tom Wolfe makes the connection between this cutting edge and religion, philosophy, and psychology. Their activities included stopping and searching thousands of "suspicious-looking" people on the street. Are these actions necessary to clean up the streets, or are they unnecessarily confrontational and even racist?
Has Mayor Guiliani's zero tolerance approach to street crime been responsible for the dramatic reductions in crime in the city, or have his policies done more harm than good? What lessons should the rest of the nation learn from New York? The cold war is over, but America's overseas military commitments remain in place. What are we defending the world against? Should we bring the troops home and let the rest of the world fend for itself? Can we create a new blueprint for international involvement that makes moral and rational sense?
Thiel, chairman and chief executive officer, Confinity, Inc.
Bibliography - A Companion to Lyndon B. Johnson - Wiley Online Library
Guests predict that, in the near future, most people will no longer use cash, but rather conduct all financial transactions electronically. These transactions will be instantaneous, secure, and invisible and will remake the entire global economy. What will happen when governments can no longer control or tax the flow of capital? According to our guests, nothing less than revolution. Kessler, research fellow, Hoover Institution and associate professor of economics, law, and policy, Graduate School of Business, Stanford University; and Jack Lewin, chief executive officer, California Medical Association.
In the last decade, health maintenance organizations HMOs have come to dominate the health care system, in part because they promised to contain soaring health care costs. But patients are unhappy with reduced treatment options and doctors are unhappy with reduced payments. Will the Patients Bill of Rights passed by Congress in solve these problems? Are there more fundamental problems with our health care system that will require more far-reaching solutions?
Why are the Balkans important to the United States and what was the justification for the war over Kosovo? What mistakes did we make in our handling of the conflict? What should we do differently the next time there is a crisis in the Balkans? In , the amount of money spent in political campaigns in the United States may reach three billion dollars. Is that too much? Have our politicians been corrupted by special interests and their money? What can be done to reform our system of campaign finance? Should contribution limits be raised or eliminated?
Is immediate public disclosure of contributions the answer? What are the prospects for campaign finance reform in the near future? It's been nearly a decade since Boris Yeltsin brought seventy years of Soviet rule to an end in Unfortunately, an era that began with high hopes for the new Russia has become a nightmare for the Russian people.
One indicator of the troubles in Russia: life expectancy is now lower than during the Soviet era. What went wrong in Russia under Yeltsin? What does the future hold now that Russia has a new leader? Finally, what direction should U. Shultz senior fellow, Hoover Institution. In , at a United Nations conference in Rome, nations voted in favor of creating the International Criminal Court. Does the ICC go against American principles of international law or is the United States trying to hold itself above the law? What is the risk that American leaders will be tried before the court?
We are in the midst of a revolution in medicine: human genetic engineering. Like earlier revolutions in health care, such as surgery with anesthesia or the use of antibiotics, genetic engineering has the potential to greatly advance the health and well-being of mankind. Yet unlike earlier innovations, human genetic engineering raises serious ethical questions. It may be one thing for an adult to undergo gene therapy to cure a disease, but what about modifying human embryos to prevent that disease?
And if embryos can be altered to improve health, what about to improve intelligence or to select physical characteristics such as hair or eye color? How does the WTO work and why did it raise such a response? Does the WTO threaten environmental laws, human rights, and national sovereignty or does it provide the best framework for ensuring that all nations benefit from international trade? Were the protests aimed at the WTO in particular or at the concept of free trade itself? What is the future of Taiwan? Deteriorating Taiwan-China relations could be the first foreign policy crisis for the next American president.
What is the history of the Taiwan-China situation?
Is Taiwan an independent state? If so, why does the United States not recognize Taiwan's sovereignty? How should the U. Wester, auxiliary bishop, Archdiocese of San Francisco. Since , more than forty city and county governments across the country have enacted living wage ordinances. What are living wage ordinances and how does the living wage differ from the minimum wage? Is a living wage ordinance the best way to help low-income families or are there more effective methods of helping those in need? But that is changing. When India and Pakistan conducted nuclear weapons tests in , they demonstrated that they had both the ability and the will to build nuclear weapons.
Is the United States doing enough to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons? Are we prepared for the very real possibility that nations such as North Korea and Iran may soon be able to build nuclear weapons? Is America on the wrong side of the death penalty debate? The worldwide trend is against the death penalty: more than half the countries in the world have abolished it, including more than 30 nations since So why do we have a death penalty in America? Is it to deter people from committing murder? If so, does it work? Or is the death penalty fundamentally a matter of justice, of punishing appropriately those guilty of the worst crimes?
Internet technologies are transforming the way we communicate and do business. But, are we, as some claim, in the midst of the "long boom," a new era of unparalleled prosperity driven by unprecedented technological change or are we merely enjoying a bull market that has yet to begin its inevitable correction? What does the current economic boom have in common with the "Roaring Twenties" and how can we avoid an economic contraction as severe as the great depression?
What the next president decides to do with the federal budget will impact the lives of each and every one of us. For example, what should the next president do with the current budget surplus, pay down the national debt, set aside money to strengthen social security, or cut taxes? Milton Friedman answers these questions as well as addresses how the next president should approach the issues of education, health care, and the future of social security.
McLachlan professor of history, Stanford University. Some argue that all of the major cultural trends that we associate with modern America entered the mainstream in the s. What was unique about the s? Should we emphasize the impact of '70s over that of the '50s and '60s? The House of Representatives is a venerable institution, now more than years old. Is the structure of the institution itself appropriate to the demands of our modern, rapidly changing democracy?
Were his reforms just partisan fix-it jobs or were they much-needed repairs for the long-term? Is it even possible to make long-term changes to the House? In the presidential campaign, Gore and Bush locked up their nominations almost six months before their parties' conventions. The Democratic and Republican national conventions, formerly full of high-stakes drama as the party delegates chose their presidential tickets, are now little more than formalities. Is the presidential primary system in need of reform or is it working just fine? Does the front-loading of the primary season make it impossible for a dark horse candidate to build a campaign?
Do the political parties have too much power in the process or not enough? The traditional notion of marriage, that of a union between one man and one woman, goes back thousands of years in cultures from around the world. But at the beginning of the 21st century, a debate is building in this country over the definition of marriage, specifically over the issue of same sex marriage. Are two men, or two women, in a committed relationship entitled to the sanctions and legal benefits of marriage? What roles will popular sentiment and judicial activism have in the struggle to redefine marriage?
In , thousands of Americans from all walks of life volunteered to fight in a poorly equipped army overseas, with no support from their government. What was it about the Spanish Civil War that inspired such idealism and courage? And was the fight to defend the Spanish Republic against General Franco and the power of international fascism as pure and noble as it seemed to these Americans?
We examine the role that Soviet aid and influence, under Stalin's direction, played in supporting or undermining the republican cause. See No. For much of the one hundred years just past, the forces of freedom and democracy found themselves at war with two books, Das Kapital, by Karl Marx, which, of course, gave rise to Communism, and Mein Kampf, by Adolph Hitler, which gave rise to Nazism.
Nazism and communism, how is it that these two totalitarian ideologies gained such a hold on tens of millions of people? If you had to decide the matter as a historical question, which one, Nazism or communism, did more damage to the fabric of our civilization? In , Congress established the National Endowment for the Arts, declaring that it was "necessary and appropriate" for the government to fund the arts. We examine the question of whether the NEA really is "necessary and appropriate. What role does the NEA play in arts education? In short, has the NEA been a success or not?
Charter schools are public schools that are allowed to operate outside the normal education bureaucracy. Do charter schools work? We examine this growing movement and look at the evidence: do charter schools outperform normal public schools? If so, why? Who goes to charter schools? And what happens when for profit companies run charter schools? In return corporations receive licenses to the patents generated by that research.
Do these new academic-corporate relationships threaten the traditional functions of our universities to educate and to serve the public good by bringing the fruits of research to the public sooner and more efficiently? Congress is considering legislation that establishes a legal right to internet privacy. Many feel, however, that the issue is already settled and that it is impossible to guarantee privacy on the net.
How is our privacy compromised when we surf the web? How is the internet industry responding to demands for privacy? Can individuals protect their own privacy online or is government regulation needed? It is estimated that Colombia produces 90 percent of the cocaine and 65 percent of the heroin consumed in the United States.
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The package includes providing the Colombian army with military helicopters and U. Will the aid package succeed in stemming the flow of drugs from Colombia, or will it entangle the United States in Colombia's bloody civil war? Will American soldiers lose their lives fighting the drug war on Colombia? Is this a necessary escalation of our own war on drugs or a bad idea? Over the past several years, biotechnology companies, in a race to find possible new drugs, have deluged the U.
Patent Office with tens of thousands of requests for patents on pieces of human DNA. Are gene patents being granted inappropriately, before gene functions are fully understood? Are gene patents encouraging or hindering the progress of medicine and the development of new drugs? Some critics have a broader objection to gene patents, arguing that it is inappropriate to give a company the exclusive right to genetic material that is inside us all. Are gene patents, as they suggest, patents on life? Ford distinguished fellow, Hoover Institution. The American and Russian leaders negotiated boldly, pushing each other far past the limits of previous arms control agreements.
Reagan and Gorbachev were soon close to an agreement to eliminate all nuclear weapons. Reagan refused, and no agreement was reached. What is the legacy of the Reykjavik Summit? Was it a failure, a historic opportunity squandered? Or was it beginning of the end of the cold war? Why did socialism fail to become a major force in American society? Every major first world country has been governed by a socialist or social democratic party at some point in the past century except the United States. Does socialism's failure in the United States stem from strategic mistakes made by socialist leaders?
Or has socialism always been fundamentally incompatible with American culture? What will be the legacy of William Jefferson Clinton? Will the Lewinski scandal and the impeachment define his presidency, or will people set those events aside and concentrate on his political achievements or lack thereof? How serious was Clinton's misconduct in office? Was his domestic economic and political agenda a success or a failure? And how should we rate the foreign policy record of the Clinton administration?
Is our patent system failing the new information economy? Critics say that the way the patents are being granted on computer software and on internet business methods threatens to impede technology and commerce rather than encourage it. Can industry resolve intellectual property problems on its own? Should we overhaul the patent system or just the U.
Patent Office? Should Britain continue on the path towards political and economic integration within the European Union? Many in Britain are skeptical of the benefits of political unification with continental Europe. What does Britain stand to gain or lose by ceding sovereignty to the European Union?
Would Britain's interests be better served by strengthening its special relationship with the United States? Rodgers, chief executive officer, Cypress Semiconductor. Why are so many in Silicon Valley, from the cubicles to the boardrooms, likely to be libertarians, or techno-libertarians, as some have called them? What do these techno- libertarians believe about the role of government and entrepreneurship? How will they use the massive wealth that's been created in Silicon Valley during the past several decades? Are they promoting the public welfare or shirking responsibility by not participating in the political process?
Does the Second Amendment to the Constitution confer an individual right to bear arms or not? Why is there so much disagreement about the meaning of this amendment? What does the historical evidence tell us about the intentions of the framers of the Constitution in writing this amendment? To what extent does our interpretation of the Second Amendment effect efforts at gun control today?
For the last half of the twentieth century, the conservative movement in the United States was defined by two prominent doctrines: first, containment of the Soviet Union and second, an effort to roll back the expansion of the federal government that began with the New Deal. With the first adversary out of existence, and the second in retreat, what does American conservatism stand for today? We look back to the roots of the conservative movement, its guiding principles, and its leading proponents, including William F. Buckley, Barry Goldwater, and Ronald Reagan. We look to the future of American conservatism: Will it remain a unified movement or will internal tensions break it apart?
Sofaer, George P. Are peacekeeping missions undertaken by the United Nations a good idea? Is there a difference between peacekeeping and peacemaking? What sort of conflicts should the UN become involved in and which should it avoid? What are the alternatives to UN peacekeeping missions? Why have the number of UN missions increased so dramatically since the beginning of the s? Will computers revolutionize education or not? President Clinton called for connecting every classroom in America to the internet. School districts across the country are spending billions of dollars on computers for the classroom.
Will all of this effort pay off or is it misguided? Just how should computers be used in the classroom? Is it possible that computers can actually harm the educational process? Almost everyone agrees on the importance of keeping our air and water pollution-free. But how much are we willing to pay or for what measure of protection? The Environmental Protection Agency EPA has been criticized for setting clean air standards without regard for the costs of meeting those standards.
Critics of this approach argue that failing to weigh costs and benefits could threaten economic growth, which has its own implications for public health. How should the EPA set its standards? Can cost-benefit analysis lead to standards that are both efficient and effective? In , Vicente Fox became the first opposition candidate ever to win the Mexican presidency. His election was preceded by a decade and a half of economic and political reforms in Mexico.
How significant are these changes? What are the prospects of resolving some of Mexico's enduring problems, including political corruption, entrenched poverty, and a state-controlled economy? What challenges will Fox have to overcome to bring Mexico into a new era of prosperity and freedom? In George Orwell wrote a famous essay deploring the decline in the level of modern political discourse. Many would argue that in the following fifty years, the problem has only gotten worse.
But why is this the case? Our politicians all have teams of professional speech writers and pollsters, working with focus group data and the latest research to figure out just what the public wants to hear. So why doesn't it work? Why does the political discourse of our modern politicians pale against those of our forefathers? Hensler, professor of dispute resolution, Stanford Law School; H.
Brandi, attorney at law and president, Consumer Attorneys of California. Does our system of tort law need to be reformed or would reforms restrict a fundamental right to legal redress? Are trial lawyers taking advantage of the system, to the detriment of both citizens that have been harmed and the companies that are sued? Are limits on punitive damage awards and restrictions on class-action lawsuits good ideas or not? These simple principles told the rest of the world what to expect from the United States and what we expected from the rest of the world. What were the principles behind American foreign policy in the s?
Did President Clinton apply those principles rigorously or haphazardly? How can President Bush do better? What are the technical challenges that NMD must overcome in order to be effective? Would a working missile defense system protect against large-scale attacks from a nation like Russia or China? Or would NMD only work against a limited strike by a smaller rogue nation or terrorist group? Is NMD worth the money it would cost or does it needlessly destabilize our relationship with Russia? Does bilingual education, teaching non-English speaking students academic subjects in their native language while they learn English, help students or hold them back?
Should we use the English immersion method instead? Are the recent bans on bilingual education in California and Arizona a mistake or the beginnings of a national trend? In , California began the process of deregulating its electric utilities, a process closely watched nationwide, as twenty-five other states also move toward deregulation. The results thus far in California: a power crisis--electricity shortages, rolling blackouts, utilities on the verge of bankruptcy, and rising rates for customers. Was utility deregulation just poorly managed in California or are the electric utilities fundamentally different than industries that have benefited from deregulation, such as, airlines and telephone?
Will the California power crisis bring the national movement toward energy deregulation to a halt or not? What should be done with the federal budget surplus? Does it make sense to spend the surplus on new government programs? What benefits the economy more, cutting taxes or paying down the national debt? Nobel Prize winning economist Milton Friedman offers his advice. Is the ballot initiative good or bad for American democracy?
Today citizens in twenty-four states have the right to petition their fellow citizens in the law. Initiatives that are approved by voters become law, bypassing the normal legislative process. What are the benefits of this sort of direct democracy? And what are the dangers? America has spent three decades and hundreds of billions of dollars fighting a national war on drugs. Has the war on drugs been an effective way of dealing with America's drug problem or does it cause more harm than good?
How should we weigh the moral and utilitarian arguments for and against the war on drugs; in other words, do we need to intensify the war on drugs or is it time to declare a cease-fire? In , spurred on by mounting pressure from the scientific community concerned with global warming, representatives of over nations met in Kyoto, Japan, and agreed to reduce greenhouse emissions to levels by For its part, the United States has insisted on several important changes including counting forests as carbon sinks against CO2 emissions and buying emissions credits from other countries.
Are these good ideas or not? What's the best way to implement the Kyoto Protocol and can it be done without serious harm to the U. In the 17th century, the Catholic Church put the astronomer Galileo on trial before the Inquisition for espousing his theory that the earth revolved around the sun. For many, this trial marks the beginning of a long separation between western science and western religion. In the 21st century, is this rift healing, or is there an inherent conflict between religion and science?
Do the findings of modern science have religious implications? And what does it mean to be both a person of religion and science? Brady, senior fellow, Hoover Institution, Bowen K. What did the election fiasco of tell us about the need for voting reform? Is the American voting system, as many suggest, antiquated and in need of a complete overhaul? Are national voting standards needed, and if so, does the federal government even have the authority to implement them? The oath enjoins physicians to do no harm.
Are modern medical practices coming into conflict with traditional medical ethics? How should we evaluate physician-assisted suicide or futile treatment theory? What are the benefits and what are the dangers of a new bio ethic that emphasizes the right to die as much as the right to life?
Wallace Sterling professor in the humanities, president, Stanford University, and senior fellow, Institute for International Studies. Should the estate tax be repealed or not? President Bush and Republicans in congress are working on legislation that would roll back and ultimately repeal the estate tax. On the other hand, a group of the wealthiest Americans, including Warren Buffet and George Soros, have petitioned the President to keep the estate tax.
Is the estate tax an unfair tax on already taxed income or is it a valuable tool of meritocracy? Are economic sanctions effective as a tool of foreign policy? Have sanctions and embargoes against such countries such as Iraq, Yugoslavia, and Cuba worked or do they needlessly punish the civilian populations of those countries?
Is it possible to engage in smart sanctions to put pressure on hostile regimes while allowing humanitarian aid to continue? In Martin Luther King declared: "I have a dream that my four children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character. Does affirmative action help or hurt African-Americans? Why have political ideology and racial identity become so intertwined? How should we address issues such as the education gap and the breakdown of families in the African-American community?
Who benefits from the increasing integration of the world economy? Are Americans better or worse off as a result of globalization? Are transnational corporations exploiting workers in developing countries or providing them with valuable jobs? Is globalization inevitable or can a rising tide of protest, such as we've seen against the WTO and the World Bank, actually reverse it? UK, Scope and Contents note M. Richard Atkinson, president of the University of California system, has called for eliminating the use of the Scholastic Aptitude Test in college admissions, saying that "America's overemphasis on the SAT is compromising our educational system.
Is the SAT an objective measure of the ability to succeed in college? Or is the SAT biased, as some argue, against minority students? And if universities drop the SAT, what would they use in its place? In his novel , George Orwell imagined a world in which technology allowed a totalitarian regime to maintain complete control over every aspect of citizens' lives.
Is it possible that the same danger lurks in the technology of the Internet? Or is cyberspace actually a revolutionary tool of individual freedom, as many have claimed? In other words, is the technology of the Internet inherently libertarian or will new technology turn the internet into a space of government and corporate control? For most of the twentieth century, the United States Congress relied on two sections of the Constitution, the interstate commerce clause and the Fourteenth Amendment, to enact national regulations on everything from civil rights to air pollution.
Since the mids, however, the Supreme Court has begun striking down congressional legislation based on these two sections of the Constitution. Is this trend Constitutional Revolution in which the Supreme Court is asserting its power at the expense of Congress? Or is the Court reaffirming the principle of federalism and returning to a strict reading of the Constitution?
An eighteen year civil war between the Arab north and the African south has created a humanitarian crisis in Sudan. Secretary of State Colin Powell has said of Sudan, "There is perhaps no greater tragedy on the face of the earth today. Bush has promised that under his administration, foreign involvement would take place only where direct American interests are at stake.
Does the tragedy in Sudan warrant direct U. If so, just what can, and should, the United States do? What can evolutionary science tell us about human behavior? During the past thirty years, biologists, anthropologists, and psychologists have been applying Darwinian concepts, such as natural selection and survival of the fittest, to the study of behavior.
Are social characteristics, such as aggression, love, and courtship determined by our evolutionary past and encoded into our genes like physical attributes, such as walking upright or hair color? Only 23 states had such services before And finally, though not directly job-related, emergency food programs were set up to prevent starvation. For instance, surplus agricultural goods were distributed to the poor. Federal reforms during the FDR Administration also included reforms to stabilize the economic sector.
More precisely, this federal initiative sought to stabilize the economy by establishing wage and price agreements to curb the slashing of prices and wages during the depression. Similarly, the Agricultural Adjustment Agency was created to curtail farm production in order to maintain higher farm prices and prevent further bankruptcies in the farm sector.
A primary responsibility of this entity was to restore public confidence in the banking system. The FDIC worked with participating banks to insure consumer bank deposits against bank insolvency. The federal government also collaborated with banks to address the millions of farms and homes threatened with foreclosure. For example, the federal government directly purchased from banks and refinanced at a lower interest rate the mortgages of needy farmers through passage of the Emergency Farm Mortgage Act and the Farm Relief Act. Both were enacted in Through this program the federal government insured home mortgages and home improvement loans, allowing banks to refinance the loans of needy families at lower interest rates.
The goal of the TVA was to facilitate economic development in that region of the country. To this end, dams and generating plants were constructed, providing inexpensive electric power to the region. The TVA also developed flood-control projects, manufactured and sold fertilizer, and reforested large tracts of land. Regarding the Securities and Exchange Commission, many people felt that rampant speculation in the stock market played a significant role in causing the stock market crash and subsequent depression.
Therefore, the Securities and Exchange Commission took on the responsibility of regulating speculation abuses by investors and stockbrokers. Roosevelt is generally considered to be one of the three greatest presidents in American history, along with Lincoln and Washington. Because the disease left his legs paralyzed, he could not walk without assistance. Could Roosevelt be elected president today? How would the press cover his disability? How would the voters react to a candidate who could not walk without assistance? This first set of reforms, as previously stated, was an emergency stop-gap measure.
From November of to November of , the Roosevelt Administration implemented a second set of reforms meant to define an ongoing responsibility of the federal government, a responsibility for social welfare similar to that found in European nations. Unemployment insurance was very unpopular with business leaders. To illustrate, as late as , Henry Ford persisted in blaming mass unemployment on individual laziness. He claimed there was plenty of work for those who wanted it!
The Social Security Act also contained several federal poor relief programs. It was not until that the single parent became officially eligible for assistance also. Note that prior to the New Deal, relief was a tool used by social workers to rehabilitate. With the New Deal, poor relief became a right of American citizens meeting certain eligibility standards, including of course, financial need. Yet, the legislation allowed each state to determine eligibility standards and levels of benefits.
Also contained in the legislative package were a number of smaller scale health and human service programs. These included child welfare and maternal health programs in Title V of the act and public health programs in Title VI of the legislation. During this second round of reforms, the Roosevelt Administration continued to confront massive unemployment and labor unrest. Numerous strikes took place throughout the country.
To support the rights of union organizers, the Wagner Act was passed in The board enforced the right of workers to start their own unions. For instance, specific procedures for starting unions were outlined, including voting procedures for choosing a collective bargaining agent. Program eligibility was limited to one member of each family. Because this was typically a male, the program was considered by some to be discriminatory. In any case, the WPA employed two million people a month building libraries, schools, hospitals, parks, and sidewalks. It also established rural camps where youth could learn trade skills.
The WPA also funded several projects which put people in the arts to work. In so doing, writers were put to work preparing items such as tourist guides to American states and cities, while artists painted murals on the walls of public buildings. After , the Roosevelt Administration met greater opposition to its reform agenda from Republicans and conservative Democrats.
There were several reasons for this opposition. The national economic troubles continued despite the broad array of reforms. To fund the New Deal and stimulate economic growth, the Roosevelt Administration spent more than the federal government was actually receiving in tax revenue. A third reason for the opposition to further reform was the fear of socialism in America. Adding to this fear was the growing power of labor unions across the country. Roosevelt, after all, had supported legislation Wagner Act to facilitate this development, despite the opposition of business leaders.
Despite this opposition, the Roosevelt Administration did manage to get the Wagner-Steagall Housing Act passed in Housing Authority, which provided low-interest loans to local government for the development of public housing. This legislation established minimum wages and maximum work hours.
Remember that both minimum wages and maximum work hours were part of the policy agenda of the earlier Progressive Era. However, to appease southern interests, the legislation did not cover farm labor. The Role of Social Work in the New Deal By the beginning of the Great Depression, social work in the United States had experienced much growth and maturation as a professional discipline. That is, although Richmond held the sociological perspective that individual problems were rooted in the social environment unemployment, etc. Based on this careful collection of client information, treatment would then consist of some combination of individual and environmental change.
As the decade of the s progressed, the social work profession increasingly reflected the conservative trend across the nation. Once again, social problems such as poverty and unemployment were traced to the individual. Psychiatric social work, led in part by Smith College, became the rage within the profession.
In the process, the psychoanalytic work of Sigmund Freud, which became popular nationally, provided social workers with needed theory and individual treatment methods. In the s, society viewed individual dysfunction as a sign, not of immorality so much as, emotional disorder.
In any case, the emphasis on casework facilitated the professionalization of social work for numerous reasons. In fact, business and professional people were a ready clientele for psychoanalysis. To establish itself as a profession, social work needed the support of these middle and upper-income groups. It needed their fees for service; it needed their sanction. Thus the profession of social work with its growing emphasis on casework fit the social, economic, and political needs of the conservative and prosperous s.
By , there were 25 graduate schools of social work. This is despite the fact that the profession as a whole was reluctant to return to a social reform i. Yet, during the New Deal, public agencies primarily distributed relief funds to the needy. This is where the action and the jobs were to be found. And, as stated, social workers played major roles in policy development. She attracted much press coverage and seemed to be everywhere. She was his eyes and ears, his data collector. He knew he could count on her to bring back detailed information concerning public sentiment and social need.
Harry Hopkins , a social worker with settlement house experience, was the next most influential person to the President. In fact, it was Eleanor who first observed Hopkins as a passionate, young social worker in New York and referred him to her husband. A third prominent member of the Roosevelt Administration with social work training and settlement house experience was Frances Perkins. In fact, the Federal Emergency Relief Act required that every local public relief administrator hire at least one experienced social worker on their staff.
During the s, the number of employed social workers doubled, from about 30, to over 60, positions. This job growth created a major shift in social work practice from primarily private agency settings and clinical roles to public agencies and social advocacy. The New Deal also expanded the scope of social work from a primarily urban profession to a nationwide profession practicing in rural areas as well.
The New Deal had many shortcomings. And although the Social Security Act contained some relative small health programs, the New Deal as a whole established no major national health program. Furthermore, to appease southern politicians and get some reform legislation passed, Roosevelt did relatively little to help African Americans. New Deal legislation concerning old age pensions, unemployment insurance, and minimum wages did not cover workers in these occupations.
Perhaps most regrettable from an ethical standpoint, the New Deal contained no anti-lynching legislation — even though the beating and lynching of black citizens was still a common occurrence in some parts of the nation. If America as a nation suffered during the Great Depression, African Americans and other minorities suffered worst of all.
As historian Doris Kearns Goodwin has noted, Franklin Roosevelt thought in terms of what could be done politically, while Eleanor thought in terms of what should be done ethically. For instance, African Americans in southern work relief programs under the WPA received lower wages than their white counterparts. As a result, Eleanor made sure that black leaders received a hearing at the White House, resulting in a executive order from the President barring discrimination in WPA programs.
In the context of the times, actions such as these showed African Americans that Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt did care about them. More importantly, this advocacy gave young African Americans a glimpse of the potential power of the federal government regarding civil rights. What ever its shortcomings, the New Deal prevented many Americans, black and white, from starving to death during the Great Depression.
While challenging the ideologies of the status quo in the United States, it reformed national institutional structures to meet the massive needs of millions of Americans in poverty. In doing this, the New Deal created a major federal health and human service system in addition to the services of local public and private agencies. She used this position to advocate for the needs of African Americans during the Great Depression, directing a more equitable share of New Deal funding to black education and employment. She later attended the Moody Bible Institute in Chicago from to An educator, organizer, and policy advocate, Bethune became one of the leading civil rights activists of her era.
She later became the first African American woman to have a monument dedicated to her in Washington, D. Given the primary role that the private for-profit market plays in American social welfare, the Great Depression represented the greatest failure of the business sector in American history. As a result of the massive economic collapse in the wake of the stock market crash in , the federal government assumed a much larger role in promoting social welfare. This new partnership among U. To illustrate, both the U. In fact, some prominent business leaders such as Gerard Swope of General Electric and Marion Folsom of Eastman Kodak publicly supported the legislation.
At the same time, many social reformers attacked the Social Security Act and other New Deal legislation for being too moderate, too sexist, and too racist. Were they correct? Should the New Deal have replaced, rather than cautiously reformed, many U. Were Roosevelt and the New Deal too accommodating to the interests of conservative business and political leaders?
Did America miss a fundamental opportunity for significant progress in terms of social and economic justice? The late s and the decade of the s witnessed an increasingly strong U. As the nation entered the s, the U.
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In fact, there was a large, pent-up demand for most products. Millions of Americans saw the opportunity to keep their urban industrial jobs while living in the suburbs. In addition, developer William J. Levitt began mass-producing affordable homes for middle-class Americans. While the economy grew, American businesses began to shift their priorities for charitable giving. Experiences of the Great Depression, New Deal, and World War II prompted American businesses to increasingly direct donations to community groups other than the traditional health and human services of the local community chests.
The transition was facilitated by a ruling of the Supreme Court of New Jersey. For example, a donation by a railroad company to a local YMCA that provided housing for railroad workers was legal. Thus, a legal precedent was established for corporate giving to a wider range of causes, including educational, cultural, and artistic organizations. At the same time, American corporations were becoming more aware of their responsibility to a wide range of community groups.
The subsequent New Deal legislation, as previously stated, was perceived by business as an enormous threat to the free market system. Thus, business was presented with the option of acknowledging its broader social welfare responsibilities on a voluntary basis or through increased government regulation. As in the Progressive Era, business leaders responded to the threat of further regulation with a renewed emphasis on management professionalism and corporate social responsibility.
The idea of business management as the trustee for society at large was increasingly stressed in the business sector. Business management became more responsive to multiple groups in its environment: stockholders, employees, retirees, consumers, government, and local communities. For example, in , General Electric became the first corporation to match employee and retiree contributions to charity with a corporate donation i.
Although the federal government worked with the business sector during the ls to build homes and highways, there was relatively little new social reform passed at the federal level. However, the administrations of Harry Truman and Dwight Eisenhower were relatively dormant with respect to major new social reform. The legislation that was passed included the National School Lunch Program, the National Mental Health Act providing grants to states for mental health services , and the School Milk Program.